Friday, October 28, 2011

Marine Toxicologist, Dr. Riki Ott, discusses the untold effects of the BP oil spill and the comparisons with the Exxon Valdez spill which occurred in Alaska.

Marine Toxicologist, Dr. Riki Ott, discusses the untold effects of the BP oil spill and the comparisons with the Exxon Valdez spill which occurred in Alaska.

A must see: Dr. Riki Ott reports on scientific data collected in the Gulf and coastal areas regarding toxic dispersant and oil related chemicals which were found to be hundreds times the critical and highly toxic concentrations, the data collected regarding the wildlife health toll and current human health toll of the medical complications caused by these toxins and the misrepresentation and false communication of the government, the oil companies and the media regarding the data.

"Riki Ott, PhD is a marine biologist and toxicologist, author of Sound Truth and Corporate Myth$: The Legacy of the Exxon Valdez Oil Spill, an enlightening read with multiple eyewitness accounts and her own direct experience of that disaster. Dr. Ott’s book confirms the serious medical consequences of massive chemical exposure from oil spills and serves as a dire warning that the Gulf oil spill is likely to affect our planet and its population in catastrophic ways." 
Taken from:

Saturday, September 3, 2011

The Unofficial Commencement of the French-Indian Wars and The Acadian Exile - Le Grand Dérangement "Great Expulsion"

The French and Indian conflicts with Great Britain were the result of a decades long territorial dispute over the Ohio Valley region and the Canadian areas of empirical claims.

As France and Britain historically struggled for power in the Americas, l'Acadie became caught in the stuggles for the reigns of power between the 2 empires.

The French and Indian conflicts with Great Britain were the result of a decades long territorial dispute over the Ohio Valley region and the Canadian areas of empirical claims. Ohio was important for a couple of reasons: firstly, it was a productive area for the fur trade; and secondly, the Thirteen Colonies (especially Virginia) wanted to expand westward and the French were in the way. The Americans were particularly unhappy that the French constructed Fort Duquesne in the area of contention. In 1753, the governor of Virginia, Robert Dinwiddie, sent an officer named George Washington to deliver a message ordering the French to leave. The French literally laughed in Washington's face.

"French and Indian" was a term designated by the British as the "opposition forces" that they confronted for empire expansion.Unlike the British, the French maintained relatively great relations with the Native Indian Tribes of Canada, including the Mi'kmaq Indians for certain reasons:

  • The Thirteen Colonies often fought with one another and were by no means united.

  • Indigenous peoples were suspicious of the Americans because they wanted to both trade with Indians and settle Indian lands.

  • Indian peoples found the French more tolerable because Canadiens stressed trade as opposed to settlement.

  • Consequently, the French were in a better position to construct a network of forts in North America's interior that effectively blocked the English-Americans.

  • "Mido-chlorian Theory", i.e. The force was stronger with the French because they were born with more mido-chlorians than the English.

In Acadia (Nova Scotia) in late August and early September, 1755, the Neutral French Inhabitants of Acadia were immediately declared "non-citizens" and their land/livestock were confiscated. There was some confusion and anger among the French. However, the British were prepared. Lt. Col. John Winslow rounded up and imprisoned 2,000 Acadians. To escape expulsion some Acadians fled into the forests where they were hunted down by British troops. Many French managed to avoid capture and made it to Quebec. Nevertheless, by the end of the first year alone nearly 7,000 French had been successfully exiled to prison and concentration camps in the Thirteen Colonies, Englad and France.

Although many Acadians were able to find rfuge in Louisiana, the majority of Acadians migrated to Louisiana betweene the years, 1764 and 1770 with the last great migration being implemented by the Spanish Transport Ships of 1785 which transported Acadians who had been relocated to areas in and around Poitou France during the Great Expulsion years occurring between 1755 - 1762.

A doctor by the name of John Thomas, serving under Lt. Col. John Winslow, kept a detailed journal of the events in Acadia: “September 2nd. Pleasant day. Major Frye sent Lieutenant John Indocott’s detachment to the shore, with orders to burn the village at a place called Peteojack. September 18. Very strong gusts of wind, with rain and snow. Major Prible returned from an expedition with his men, who had burned 200 houses and barns. November 19th. Cold. We rounded up 230 head of cattle, 40 sows, 20 sheep and 20 horses and we came back. We have started moving the inhabitants out. The women were very distressed, carrying their newborns in their arms; others brought along in carts their infirm parents and their personal effects. In short, it was a scene in which confusion was mixed with despair and desolation.

The majority of Acadians were deported to New England, where they were not welcome: “The French neutrals arouse the general discontentment of the population, because they are papist zealots, lazy and of a quarrelsome mind,” declared the governor of Virginia, Robert Dinwiddie, who probably never met a French person in his life. He continued, “We have very few Catholics here, which makes the population very anxious for its religious principles and makes it fear that the French shall corrupt our Negroes."

The ships transporting the Acadians were overcrowded as the French were squished into holds to the point of suffocation. These transports were little more than prison ships. Some of the Acadians ended up in England and France, some in the Caribbean (Antilles), a scattered few in the English Colonies, and a number of them settled in Louisiana.

In 1758, the English captured Louisbourg and a final series of deportations began. The most infamous of all the persecuting British officers was Robert Monckton. Those French who resisted deportation (and weren't executed outright) were sent on an all expenses paid vacation to England where they labored for years in concentration camps. After their stay in England was over, the French were sent to France where they felt and were treated like foreigners.

When the expulsion finally ended in 1762, over 10,000 people had been removed; and of those 3,000 had died due to shipwrecks and disease. In 1764, the deportations officially came to an end and the ban on Acadians was lifted. The ban was lifted only because New France had been conquered and was no longer a threat. Approximately 3,000 people returned to Nova Scotia to start over again. However, many of the French returned only to find their farms occupied by English settlers. Consequently, the majority of these people migrated north-west to found settlements in present day New Brunswick.

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Wednesday, June 15, 2011

Journal of John Winslow of the Provincial Troops While Engaged in Removing the Acadian French Inhabitants from Grand-Pré In the Autumn of the Year 1755

Journal of John Winslow of the Provincial Troops While Engaged in Removing the Acadian French Inhabitants from Grand-Pré In the Autumn of the Year 1755

From My Camp at Grand-Pre, Nova Scotia,
August 22nd 1755

I embarked on the sixteenth with three hundred and thirteen men, officers included, having with me Captains Adams, Hobbs, and Osgood in three vessels bound for Porte Edward, where we the next day arrived and I found there a memorandum sent by Colonel Lawrence, the Governor of Nova Scotia, which directed me to take up my quarters at the Basin of Minas. Whereupon, on the next tide, I came down the river and entered into the Gaspereau, where we landed.

Have taken up my quarters here in Grand-Pré between the Church and Chapel yard, having the Priest's House for my own accommodation and the Church for a Place of Arms. Am picketing my Camp to prevent a surprise. Expect to be joined with two hundred more men soon.

As to the Inhabitants, commonly called the Neutrals, the point seems to have been settled in relation to them and they are to be removed. They are as yet in Ignorance of the Reason of my coming here. This is a fine day and they seem to be very busy with their harvesting.

I have the pleasure to inform his Majesty's Government that the Army in general enjoys a good state of health, although it is likely we shall soon have our hands full of a disagreeable Business to remove a people from their ancient habitations which in this part of the Country are very valuable.

The Orders of the Day: No soldier to Straggle from this Camp down the street of the Village without special permission and leave from me.

The Main body of the Church to be made clear for the reception of men and provisions. The Troops, with the exception of the Guard and the Sentry, will hereafter lodge in this Camp.

August 24th

Yesterday I received a month's provisions for four hundred men, which I have deposited in the Church. I have pitched my Tents and lodged my men in them; and if my Palisades hold out, shall finish my picjeting this day. There is a small House within the pickets which I have made into a Captains' quarters.

One thing I still lack, which is a guard room, and I have a frame up and partly enclosed and there are old boards enough here to cover it. I shall put His Majesty to n o expense in the whole but for Nails, of which if the Commissary h ave any in store I should be glad of one thousand and can not well do without them, as also a Lock of any kind so it be stout for the Church door.

Jock (Jacques) Terreo (Theriault) informs me that the Inhabitants of Grand-Pré are redily complying with our demand of Cattle and that these should be of the best. We this day drive to the Woods to collect the herds together.

Instructions for Lieutenant-Colonel John Winslow:

Destina tions of the Vessels in the Basin of Minas: North Carolina, Mary Land and Virginia. Each person so embarked is to be allowed 5 pounds of flour and 1 pound of pork for every seven days.

With relation to the means necessary for collecting the people together so as to get them on board. If you find that Fair means will not do with them you must Proceed by the most Vigorous measures possible not only in compelling them to Embark, but in depriving those who shall escape of all means of shelter by Burning their Houses and Destroying everything that will afford them means of subsistence in their Country.

As soon as the Transports have received their people on baord and are ready to Sail you are to acquaint the Commander of his Majesty's ship therewith that he may take them under Convoy and put to Sea without loss of Time.

August 30th

As the Corn is now all down, the weather being such as has helped the Inhabitant's housing of it, it is my opinion that the orders be mde public next Friday, on which day we purpose to put these orders into execution.


September 1st

Three of the extra Transports have arrived and the Inhabitants have been on Board eager to know their Errand, but as I was early with the Ships' masters, I gave them instructions to say that they were to come to attend me and the Troopos wherever I pleased. These Transports inform me that there is eleven more Sail coming from Boston and would weigh anchor shortly.

This day, September 2nd, 1755, I posted his Majesty's proclamation in the village of Grand-Pré, giving notice to the People that they assemble in the Church on Friday at three of the Clock.

September 5th

I have found it expedient to add this clause to the Proclamation in the village of Grand-Pré:

That all Horned Cattle, sheep, Goats, Hogs and Poultry of all kinds that were this Day suposed to be Vested in the French Inhabitants of this Province are become forfeited to his Majesty whose Property they now are, and every Person of the French Denomination is to take care not to Hurt, Kill, or Destroy anything of any kind nor to rob Orchards of Gardens or to make Waste of anything whatsoever, Dead or Alive, in these Districts without Orders from me.

The Orders of the Day: The French Inhabitants to repair to their quarters in the Church at Tattoo and in the day not to extend their walks to the Eastward of the Commandant's Quarters without leave from the officers of the Guard. A patrol of a Sergeant and twelve men to walk constantly round the Church. The Sentries everywhere to be doubled.

These French people not having any provisions with them in the Church and pleading Hunger, I ordered that for the future they be supplied from their respective families.

Thus ends my Memorable fifth of September, a Day of great Fatigue for me and Trouble.
Grand-Pré Church announcement to Acadians of their exile - September 5, 1755 - Painting: The Deportation by C. W. Jefferys

September 10th

I sent for Father (as in head of the family) Landry, their principal Speaker who talks English, and I told him the time was come for the Inhabitants to begin Embarking and that we would start with the Young Men and that I desired he would inform his Brethren of it. He was greatly Surprised.

I told him that as I Viewed the matter it must be done and that I should order the Prisoners to be drawn up Six Deep, their Young Men on the left, and as the Tide would in a very little time favor my Design I could not give them above an Hour to prepare for going on Board. I then Commanded our whole Party to be under Arms and Post themselves between the two gates and the Church in the rear of my Quarters, which was obeyed and agreeable to my Directions.

The Whole of the French Inhabitants were drawn together in one Body, their Young Men as directed to the left. I then ordered the Prisoners to march, but they all answered that they could not go without their Fathers.

I told them that was a word New England did not understand, for that the King's Command was to me Absolute and should be, on my part, Absolutely obeyed. That I did not love Harsh means but the Time did not permit of parleying. Then I ordered the whole Troops to fix their Bayonets and advance toward the French with the repeated order to march.

The Which they then did, though Slowly, and they went singning and crying and praying, being met by the Women and Children all the way (the road is rough and a mile and a half long) with great lamentations and upon their knees.

I began at once to Embark these Inhabitants who went so Sorrowfully and Unwillingly, the Women in great distress carrying their Children in their arms and Others carrying their decrepit Parents in their Wains and all their Goods moving in dire Confusion. It appeared indeed a matter of Woe and Distress.

Thus Proceeds a Troublesome Job, and little to my liking. After this Captain Adams Fell Down from the Gaspereau.

September 11th

I made strict enquiry how those Young Men made their escape yesterday and by every circumstance found one Francois Hubert (Hebert) was either the Contriver or Abettor, who was on Board at the time and his Effects shipped. I ordered him ashore, allowed him to proceed to hiw own House and then in his presence burned both his House and Barn.

There are certain Instructions which must be given to the Masters of these Transports. Thomas Church of the Leopard, bound for Mary Land, will sail first. I will write him in this wise:

You having received on Board your Schooner certain Men, Women and Children, being part of the French Inhabitants of the Province of Acadie in Nova Scotia, you are to Proceed with them when Wind and Weather permit to his Majesty's Governor in Mary Land and upon your arriving there you are to Wait upon the Honorable Horatio Sharp, Lieutenant-Governor and Commander-in-Chief, and make all possible Dispatch in Debarking your Passengers.

You are to take care that no Arms or offensive Weapons of any kind are on Board with your passengers and to be as careful and watchful as possible during the whole course of your Voyage to prevent these Prisoners from making an attempt to take the Ship. To guard against any attempt to seize your Vessel you will allow only a Small Number to be on Deck at a time.

See that the Provisions be regularly issued to the people and for your greater Security you are to wait on the Commander of his Majesty's Ship Nightingale and desire the Benefit of his Convoy.

Wishing you a successful Voyage, and given under my hand at the Camp of Grand-Pré, Anno Domino, Seventeen hundred and fifty-five.

John Winslow

I have made out a Summary of this Unplesant Business upon which I, Lieutenant-Colonel John winslow of the Army of Boston, was Detailed. I caused to be Burned the following in the region round about the Basin of Minas:

- Barns 276
- Houses 255
- Mills 11
- Churches 1
- Total 543

I shipped one thousand five hundred and ten Inhabitants from Grand-Pré on certain Vessels to Strange Parts, where these French will needs find themselves Houses. The Brig Hannah, Captain Adams in command, will take her way to Philadelphia. The Industry and the Leopard, Goodwin and Church being their Masters, are on their Route to Mary Land. I have started the Prosperous, the Mary, and the Sally and Molly to the region of Virginia.

Winter will be coming on apace in this Camp and the Sea beats desolately against the Shore.